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  • Lumasense Technologies
  • Meeco
  • S::CAN
  • Servomex
  • Thermo Fisher Technologies
LUMASENSE TECHNOLOGIES
  Hospital gas monitoring in operating theaters
Gas Monitoring at a Hospital

Occupational exposure to inhalation of anaesthetic gases should be minimised as it may lead to adverse health effects for the personnel exposed. Many countries pay special attention to workers safety in operating theatres which is leading to increased awareness of recommended exposure levels and measuring methods.

This article will describe real time monitoring using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) as an affordable and time saving principle of continuously monitoring of hospital gas with minimum maintenance and high measurement quality.

Exposure to Hospital Gases

It is well known that people working in hospital operating theatres are often exposed to anaesthetic gases. The system used to supply a mixture of anaesthetic gases to the patient consists of two parts, the anaesthetic machine and the anaesthetic breathing circuit and the amount of leaking hospital gases contaminating the room can be traced back to a number of sources (2):

A. Anaesthetist's work habits
• Failure to properly connect and utilise the available scavenging equipment.
• Poor choice of or imperfect fitting of the facemask.
• Leaving gas flows on with the breathing system disconnected from the patient.

B. Anaesthetic equipment
1. High pressure system (components between the flow meters and the high-pressure N2O source and the flow meters)
2. Low pressure system (components between the flow meters and the patient in the anaesthesia machine and in the ventilator)

• Loose, defective or absent gaskets and seals.
• Worn-out or defective bags and breathing hoses.
• Loosely assembled or deformed slip joints and the threaded connections.
• Loose flow meter tubes.
• Inadequately designed or poorly maintained scavenging system.
• Spillage when vaporisers are filled.

Why Hospital Gas Monitoring?
Studies have shown that there are numerous health effects associated with the exposure of waste anaesthetic agents. These include increased risk of spontaneous abortion to females exposed to anaesthetic gases in hospitals with incidence 1.5 - 2 times greater than in unexposed females. Further more the surveys have shown a possible relationship between occupational health exposure of hospital operating theatre personnel to anaesthetic gases and the onset of toxic symptoms or mutagenic risks.

A: Acute effects
• Loss of concentration
• Fatigue
• Depression
• Headache

B: Reproductive effects & chronic effects
• Loss of fertility
• Spontaneous abortion
• Miscarriage
• Birth defects
• Malignant diseases
• Altered DNA synthesis in the bone marrow*
• Mild megaloblastic changes*
* These changes are only temporary and are reversed within 9 days.

For this reason many countries have imposed recommendations for the limits to exposure to Nitrous oxide and other anaesthetic gases for already existing and for newly constructed or renovated operating theatres

Air Sampling of Hospital Gases in Operating Theatres
Air sampling in the operating theatre can be accomplished by instantaneously sampling with a syringe. This method will only accurately represent the personnel exposure when the air conditioning system provides ideal mixing and when the leak of the anaesthetic agent is constant. Because rates of leakage vary from moment to moment during clinical anaesthesia, the interpretation of such samples must be made with caution.

An alternative to the instantaneous sampling is to sample over a period of time sufficient to average out the short-term variations. This "time weighted" sampling method is normally made by using personnel sampling pumps, with either temporary storage in gas tight bags or charcoal tubes; however this is ineffective to N2O. Such samples are then carried to the laboratory where the samples are treated in a Mass Spectrometer.

The disadvantage of this method is that it is time consuming and the delay between sampling and analysis result will prevent the personnel from reacting to any rapid changes in the gas concentration.

For this reason, continuously monitoring of hospital gas is preferable, as this will provide the immediate concentration level at a specific point. This is illustrated in Figure 1 which is based on measurement results with continuously monitoring of hospital gas from an operating theatre.




  Organic solvents at a printers



The Fast Response Triple gas monitor - INNOVA 1311 used in this application.

The Problem
A printing company had a ducted extraction system already installed to service the main colour printers. A monitoring system was required to provide a total organic emission concentration from the final emission duct. This printing company had no experience of monitoring and did not wish to dedicate a great deal of time or man-power to the running of the system but rather to continue their own business in the most efficient manner.High quality printing often requires the use of printing inks that have organic solvents as a carrier. Monitoring the emission from a ducted extraction system provides not only an indication of the environmental aspects but also the efficiency of the printing process - why use extra solvent if it is not necessary and only adds to your costs?




Monitoring solvents in exhaust system

The Solution
In this instance, a Fast Response Triple Gas Monitor - INNOVA 1311 was recommended. This monitor uses the PAS/MA technique and a special optical filter which can measure the desired volatile organic compounds, in this case propan-2-ol (isopropyl alcohol). The INNOVA 1311, with its 19 inch rack mounting case, can be installed in a convenient place, out of harms way, and receive the measurement samples via PTFE tubing, which is easy to fit. A definite advantage of the INNOVA 1311 for the printing company is that it requires no gases or other consumables in order for it to operate.The monitor's analogue output provides a continuous data flow to the chart recorder while the built-in alarm and service request functions let the operators know when something requires attention. A calibration check is only required monthly and therefore the monitor gets on doing its job while the printers get on with theirs. The monitor can provide a reading of the vapour concentration every second to the chart recorder, however, the variation in the concentration during the printing process and at start and finish was not so great as to require this. Consequently, an averaged measurement time of 5 seconds was selected so that the noise generated by slight variations in the concentration would not produce a broad band on the chart recorder.

Discussion
Over recent years organisations have developed significant health and safety programmes for the welfare of their workers. This has introduced a much cleaner working environment with the collection of particles, fumes and vapours from working areas either by increasingly sophisticated enclosures or scavenging systems. The material is then collected and depending upon its nature (solid, liquid or gas) disposed of accordingly. A major disposal route for gases and vapours is by venting them to air. A direct consequence of this method though is that the material which was a cause for concern in the working area is now being discharged directly into the factory grounds. Good design of vent extraction systems means that the efflux velocity from the ducting and the height of the duct diminishes any problem in the locality. Having introduced sophisticated safe working practises for their employees, organisations are now discovering that they must turn their attention to the impact they are having on their neighbours. Monitoring emissions to the atmosphere is becoming a much more common and expected practice. The range of compounds that have some form of monitoring requirement placed on them either for odour or safety reasons is wide. The majority of them though are organic solvents and some of them are required to be monitored individually whilst for some other applications a total figure for the solvents is satisfactory.


  Evaluation of ventilation performance in a subway station
The Problem
The air quality in a subway station with many diesel trains sets high demands on the ability of the ventilation system to remove obnoxious gases and particles.

In a big Danish subway station, which services regional, local and metro trains in three different sections, the management wanted to evaluate the performance of the ventilation system to assure good air quality at the platform. Along the 200 metre long platform, there are located 43 vents, which supply outdoor air to the occupied zone. The exhaust vents are placed in the ceiling above the trains. The platform in question serves both diesel and electric powered trains. The
Fig.1 Monitoring CO, CO2 and Freon 134a in a subway station in Copenhagen
influence of openings to both the outside and other parts of the subway system affect the performance of the ventilation system, and complicate the quantification of its perform-ance. With the arrival and departure of trains, the piston effect creates high air velocities in the stairwells and tunnels, which leads to large air changes.

The Monitoring Need
In order to evaluate the ventilation system and air quality in the subway station, it was necessary to use two tracer-gas monitoring systems: one stationary system for dosing the trac-er-gas in the ventilation system and one mobile system for measuring at the same time. Freon 134a was used as the tracer-gas because SF6 is forbidden in Denmark due to its high Global Warming Potential, GWP-index. (The GWP in-dex for F134a is 1 300, while the GWP-index for SF6 is 23 900). For the evaluation of the air quality, CO and CO2 were also measured at various locations in the subway system.
INNOVA’s Solution
The Photoacoustic Multi-gas Monitor 1312 is well suited for these types of measurements. The monitor is easily operated and can measure the 3 gases of interest within one minute.

Due to the distance be-tween the dosing point at the air intake and the various sampling points around the station, two independent sys-tems were used. For measur-ing the CO, CO2 and Freon 134a concentrations in the various sections
Fig.2 Photoacoustic Multi-gas Monitor 1312
of the sta-tion, one Photoacoustic Mul-ti-gas Monitor 1312 was used. When connected to an inverter and a car battery this system is fully mobile. For dosing of the tracer-gas, a Multi-point Sampler and Doser 1303 is used with a 1312 and the Application Software 7620. The system is set up with a constant dosage rate of Freon 134a. This oc-curs in the ventilation inlet just before the fan and en-sures a good mixing before the air was distributed to the platform. Using the tracer-gas technique, where the ventilation air is "marked" with a detectable tracer, which is not present in the atmos-phere, it is possible to detect how well different sections of the platform are ventilated. Furthermore, it is possible to measure the spreading of pollutants to other parts of the subway system, by measuring the traces-gas concentrations at these locations.
Measurement Results
The measurements were carried out over 3 days to assure the producibility of the data. Before starting the dosing of the tracer-gas, the background level was measured at various locations. With a known background concentration, it is pos-sible to get an overview of the dispersion of the tracer-gas, and, therefore, the spreading of pollutants from the diesel trains. In order to quantify the amount of air provided by the ventilation system, the tracer-gas method was used. This method is superior to more common and less precise methods, such as using a pitot tupe or measuring the air velocity in the duct. The tracer-gas Freon 134a is dosed at a constant concentration. This concentration is measured both upstream and downstream of the dosing point. When measuring downstream, one must ensure that the tracer-gas is mixed optimally in the air. In this case, the dosing was done before the fan and the concentration was measured after the fan. The volume flow is calculated as shown below.

Qv = D/(C1 - C0)


where:
Qv is the volume flow in m3/s
C1 is the concentration downstream
C0 is the concentration upstream
D is the dosage rate in mg/s
Fig.3 Dosing and sampling Freon134a
The airflow, based on the tracer-gas measurements, turned out to be some 30% lower than that based on the air velocity measurements. During the ventilation measurements, the Multipoint Sampler and Doser 1303 was set-up to dose Freon 134a at a rate of 77mg/s, which ensured a sufficiently high concentration, around 100-500 ppb, in the vicinity of the ventilation outlet.

Fig.5 shows measurement results from both the platform in question and the results from different locations in the subway system. A mobile Photoacoustic Multi-gas Monitor 1312 carried out these measurements. The reason for using two separate systems was due to the distance between the stationary dosing system and the sampling points. Furthermore, having too much tubing on the heavily trafficked platform was not permitted due to safety reasons. It can be seen that both the CO and Freon 134a levels are significantly lower away from the platform and the ventilation system in question.
Fig.4 The mobile Photoacoustic Multi-gas Monitor 1312 in the Metro section of the subway system

  What is photocatalysis?


The oxidation of most hydrocarbons proceeds rather slowly in absence of a catalytic active substance. A photocatalyst decreases the activation energy and photoinduced processes (particles with strong oxidation and reduction ability) occur. A photocatalytic system consists of semiconductor particles (photocatalysts) which are in close contact with a liquid or gaseous reaction medium. Exposing the catalyst to ultraviolet light processes like redox reactions and molecular transformations take place.

TiO2 as Photocatalyst
Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is one of the basic materials in everyday lift. It has been widely used as white pigment in paints, cosmetics and foodstuffs. Generally, titanium dioxide is a semiconducting material which can be chemically activated by light. The photoactivity of TiO2 which have been known for approx. 60 years is investigated extensively.

In 1972, Fujishima and Honda [1] discovered the photocatalytic splittibg of water on TiO2 electrodes. This event marked the beginning of a new era in heterogeneous photocatalysis. Although TiO2 absorbes only 5% of the solar light reaching the surface of the earth, it is the best investigated semiconductor in the field of chemical conversion and storage of solar energy. In recent years semiconductor photocatalysis using TiO2 has been applied to important problems of environmental interest like detoxification of water and air.



Practical applications of TiO2 photocatalysis
In Figure 1 the main areas of activity in TiO2 photocatalysis are shown. As already menthioned, in the last 10 years photocatalysis has become more and more attractive for the industry regarding the development of technologies for purification of water and air. Compared with traditional advanced oxidation processes the technology of photocatalysis is known to have some advantages, such as ease of setup and operation at ambient temperatures, no need for postprocesses, low consumption of energy and consequently low cost.

Photocatalytic oxidation has been applied for removing and decomposing pollutants in indoor air. The used reactors trap and chemically oxidize organic compounds, converting them primarily to CO2 and water. These reactors operate at room temperature and negliglible pressure. Therefore, they may be redily integrated into new and existing heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems.

TiO2 coated ceramic tiles are considered to be very effective against organic and inorganic material, as well as against bacteria. The application of these tiles in hospitals and care facilities will reduce the spread of infections.

Removal of Indoor VOS’s




In addition, many health problems are caused by biological particles such as fungi, moulds, bacteria and other micro-organisms. A typical indoor pollutant is ammonia coming from cleaning products. Above Figure shows the photocatalytic degradation time of ammonia. The degradation products are mainly N2 and H2O.



One typical VOC reference is Toluene and above Figure shows the photocatalytic degradation time of this aromatic substance. As can be seen the technology can even degrade very low concentrations of chemicals in gaseous atmosphere.

MEECO
  Accupoint 2™ and natural gas
Basic Application
High water content in a gas pipeline poses several problems to the pipeline owners. Most important is the maintenance of the pipeline. When water combines with either the CO2 or H2S in the pipeline, corrosive acids can form causing an accelerated failure of the pipeline components. Also as the gas passes through metering stations, there is typically an orifice plate which restricts the gas flow. As the gas emerges from the orifice plate, there is an expansion effect and along with the expansion, a cooling effect (Joule-Thompson) on the gas stream. If the moisture content is too high, you can actually condense the water and form hydrates or ice crystals. In sufficient quantities, an ice plug can develop and cut off the gas flow through the pipeline. One additional problem is the fact that water does not burn. If the water content is too high, the gas does not have the required energy (BTU) content to produce heat.

The gas pipeline companies in the United States write contracts with the gas producers based on the water content of the gas. Typical standard is 7 lbs/mmscf (pounds per million standard cubic feet). The conversion of lbs/mmscf to ppmV is 1 lb is equivalent to 21.5 ppmV. It is in the best interests of the producer to supply gas as close as possible to the contract requirement. There is cost associated with dehydrating the gas stream. If the moisture level is accurately measured and controlled at the contract requirement, the producer will save the added expense of unnecessary dehydration.

From the viewpoint of the pipeline owner, they do not want to contaminate their pipeline with moisture. In the United States, if the moisture level exceeds the contract point, the owner has the right to shut the valve from the producer and in effect “close him in.” Once the producer has corrected the problem, the valve can be opened and gas will flow.

Suitable Analyzers
Both a portable (WaterBoy 2) and a stationary (Accupoint 2) analyzer can be used for this application.

MEECO Accupoint 2 TM
For continuous on-line moisture measurement, the MEECO Accupoint has been the unit of choice for virtually all of the major gas pipeline companies in the United States. The new Accupoint 2 is a full function, micro-processor based, 2-wire, 24vdc, 4-20 mA loop powered moisture transmitter with an integral digital display. It is designed to operate off the customers existing control system. The only requirement is 24 vdc power and the ability to read the 4-20 mA signal. The unit is also rated Factory Mutual Intrinsically Safe when used with an approved barrier for Class 1 Division 1 Group A, B, C and D locations. By placing an Accupoint 2 at each point where there is a feed into the major pipeline or at a point where ownership of the gas changes hands, the Accupoint 2 will provide an accurate indication of the moisture content of the gas.

Advantage:
The Accupoint 2 does not require, nor does it come with unnecessary electronics. If the customer can supply the 24 vdc power, the Accupoint 2 will provide a 4-20 mA signal along the those same two wires that provide the power. This eliminates the intermediate step that most standard analyzers require of processing the signal then re-t
ransmitting it. The cost savings can be substantial , and in some cases approaching $2,000 - 3,000.

  Accupoint LP2™ for medical gas

In 1999, MEECO learned that its electrolytic technology is the only method specified by the European Pharmacopoeia for moisture analysis in medical gases. Subsequently, we have received multi-unit orders from gas manufacturers in Germany and Italy for the new Accupoint LP2. Please review the following information to determine if the Accupoint LP2 is right for you or your customer’s application.

Background
Health care providers in hospitals and research laboratories depend on the delivery of high-quality medical gases. For example, medical grade oxygen is used to sustain life in the emergency room, in surgical procedures, and to treat patients with respiratory ailments. In the United States and Europe, medical gases are regulated as drugs. Over ten years ago, no requirement existed for moisture analysis in medical gases. Today, the most stringent requirement for trace moisture can be found in the most recent revision of the European Pharmacopoeia1 as shown in Table 1. The moisture analysis must be done by the electrolytic method. Not more than 60 parts-per-million (ppm) moisture must be present in the production of medical grade air, oxygen and nitrogen, and in cylinders of nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. Over the years, suppliers of medical gases noticed that moisture seepage could occur during delivery to the storage tank. Moisture measurement is specified at this juncture so this must be monitored careful y to avoid high levels of moisture contamination.

Basic Application
The electrolytic principle of operation is specified in the European Pharmacopoeia as the only method to measure moisture for the medical gases as shown in Table 1. Electrolytic detection of moisture is very reliable. Incoming moisture molecules are adsorbed on a phosphorus pentoxide coating, which is a strong desiccant. The moisture molecule is dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen molecules. The moisture dissociation creates a current directly proportional to the amount of water present through Faraday’s Law.

The moisture content in medical gases ranges from 60 ppm to less than 1 ppm, where it resides 90% of the time. A challenging range for any equipment, the achievement of this span is possible due to the linearity of the Accupoint LP2 range of 0-1000 ppm. Each moisture analysis performed on the LP2 can be recorded to 0.1 ppm resolution (see spec sheet). The lower detectable limit of the LP2 standard cell is 1 ppm.

WARNING: To maintain the best possible benefit of using the LP2 to measure to 1 ppm, we strongly recommend that the user wet the cell with a 5-10 ppm moisture check gas on a periodic basis. The wetting procedure should be done every four to six weeks to avoid cell dry-out due to prolonged exposure to a very dry gas stream. Attached please find a brochure on the Accupoint LP2. Please feel free to call (1-800-641-6478) or e-mail us at our new website, www.meeco.com, to learn more about this new and emerging application.

  ICEMAN™ Moisture Detection in New Refrigerants
Moisture in refrigerant gases is extremely difficult to measure in the field. Environmentally friendly refrigerants have created measurement problems because their water molecules do not fully separate from their refrigerant molecules at ambient temperatures, thus creating false low-moisture indications. Normally, a liquid sample must be collected and transported to a lab to be heat vaporized, and analyzed. Winner of the prestigious R&D 100 award, the portable IceMan can measure trace moisture content in a wide variety of pure and blended refrigerant gases, combining all these steps into an on-thespot system. A standard vaporizing valve and an internal battery-powered heated vaporizer can make four to eight measurements before needing to be recharged, enabling samples to be analyzed in 15 to 20 minutes. A microprocessor- based electronics packages is also incorporated, providing flexibility in selecting units of measure, communications and output scale. The device reads in ppm by volume, but it can convert to the standard ppm by weight.

Please review the following information to determine if the ICEMAN is right for your application.

Background
Moisture, a major contaminant in refrigerant gases, can create problems in everything from the manufacturing process to the end-use product. In the manufacturing process, the extreme cold temperatures necessary to produce these gases in a liquid form can cause water molecules to freeze, thereby disrupting the manufacturing process. In refrigeration systems, the constant compression and expansion of the refrigerant generates temperatures that can cause the moisture to create an ice plug in the system, resulting in potential compressor failure. The interaction of the water molecule with the refrigerant material can also create a corrosive mixture, which will lead to higher maintenance costs. The rapid release of these refrigerants, as used in fire extinguishers and aerosol propellants, can create the same extreme cooling effects that lead to ice formation and failure of the product.

Requirements
Original equipment manufacturers such as refrigerant manufacturers, refrigerant reclaimers, installers and others check for moisture in refrigerants in new or existing refrigeration and A/C systems. Moisture analysis is also a part of routine quality assurance for refrigeration product going out the door. The industry specification for moisture contamination is 10 ppmW or less for most single component fluorocarbon refrigerants and for multi-component refrigerants, 400 and 500 Series1 . The 10 ppmW moisture specification also includes reclaimed and/or repackaged refrigerants. Some refrigerant manufacturers perform moisture measurements as low as 1 ppmW for either alarming
purposes or improved product certification.

Moisture readings can vary widely due to sample handling errors in obtaining a representative liquid sample. Each time a sample is handled, from collection to ultimate analysis, there is the possibility of introducing an error into the measurement. The ICEMAN eliminates any sample collection or handling errors by allowing you to make the measurement directly at the sample point.

Application
Eliminate errors in sampling handling and get real time monitoring and response with the ICEMAN electrolytic analyzer. For improving the reliability of A/C or other refrigerant systems, the ICEMAN offers direct measurement of moisture with high accuracy. The ICEMAN is portable and has a built-in rechargeable lead-acid battery. The ICEMAN is available with an optional, bidirectional RS232 for automatic data collection and communication.

Once the ICEMAN has stabilized on your product stream, you can analyze for moisture without any further adjustments or calibration. A unique heat exchanger flash vaporizes the liquid refrigerant and automatically controls the temperature of the resulting gas sample going into the ICEMAN moisture sensor. The sample flow is also precisely controlled at 100 sccm to the electrolytic cell. All incoming moisture molecules are adsorbed in the cell on a phosphorus pentoxide coating, which is a strong desiccant. By applying a voltage potential across the cell electrodes, the moisture molecules are dissociated into hydrogen and oxygen. From this dissociation, a current is produced which is directly proportional to the amount of water vapor present through Faraday’s Law of Electrolysis.

The ICEMAN displays the moisture value directly in either ppmV or ppmW, with a correction for the molecular weight of the sample gas. The ICEMAN’s linear dynamic range is 0-1000 ppm with a 0.1 ppm display resolution and a lower detection limit of 1 ppm with an accuracy of ±5% of reading or 0.4 ppm, whichever is greater.

Attached please find a brochure on the ICEMAN. Please feel free to call (1-800-641-6478) or email us at our new website, www.meeco.com, to learn more about this new application.


S::CAN
  Drinking water and environmental monitoring
Both national laws and an increasing number of supranational recommendations are prescribing emission limits for reasons of public health. These limits may not be exceeded, and must be controlled as seamlessly as possible, in order that consumers of drinking water are not placed in jeopardy.

Furthermore, the quality of raw and/or drinking water must constantly be monitored to be able to perform controlling and/or regulating action or to implement alarms.

In order to prevent any jeopardy to the drinking water consumers’ health, the measured data must be available.

1. continuously
2. without delay (in “real time”)

This is the only way to allow quick reaction to changes in the water quality. These requirements can only be fulfilled by online assessment of the raw and drinking water qualities.

Online monitoring in raw and open waters using photometer instruments for individual wavelengths, a state-of-the-art technique for some years now, has proved its value – however, only following sophisticated on-site calibration, and just for individual parameters.

A multitude of laboratory tests has proved that even more accurate and, above all, more selective measurements can be done using a continuous absorbance spectrum reaching from the low UV to visible light. However, compact, robust and submersible UV/VIS spectrometers were not available for field and outdoor analysis before now.

The brand-new s::can submersible spectrometers can be directly immersed into the medium, making it possible for the first time to combine the advantages of probe measurement with those of spectrometry, eliminating such well-known drawbacks as sampling errors, biochemical or physical conversion after sampling, etc. The measuringtechnical level thus arrived at opens up completely new vistas.

S::CAN devices are compact and versatile enough to be used in many conditions, from the 2” bore hole to open rivers and canals, vessels and containers, up to pressure and by-pass pipes.

  Industrial applications (process and waste water)
The fresh coolant is set as a reference spectrum = 0; changes become spectrally visible through water diffusion / de-emulsification / as well as combustion products / colour.

Measurement has a true resolution of > 1:100; thus, the degree of change can be given with sufficient precision (accuracy) in %.

No substance concentrations are calibrated, since classic parameters cannot describe the processes involved with the same sensitivity and selectivity.

Sudden deviations from the reference spectrum can be applied as a very sensitive, broadband alarm parameter.

Application was successfully tested for
- transformer oil and for an
- automobile factory.

  Waters-applications



Water Quality Monitoring Station

The s::can Water Quality Monitoring Station – a modular combination of one s::can terminal, several s::can probes and flow-through-cells – minimizes the complexity of water analysis to Plug & Measure Monitoring.

For more information click here.


Environmental Monitoring

S::CAN instruments are ideal to monitor all kind of natural waters: rivers, lakes, groundwaters, and the sea. The innovative spectro::lyser™ offers new perspectives for water quality monitoring. One outstanding feature for environmental monitoring is the ability to store a large amount of data on board, either concentration values or complete UV-Vis-spectra. This allows you to always display the current state like a snapshot and to compare this with the past. The "normality" of a water body, and possible deviations thereof are clearly visualised.

Another vital feature is the low energy consumption (12V/300mA during measurements; 5mA in sleep mode), so battery / solar energy supply is an option.

The instruments are available with full stand-alone capability (integrated data logger, external battery), or as a part of a network of autonomous solar-powered field stations, providing the telemetric control and data transfer from several field sensors or stations to a central data bank / management system, accessible via any web browser: s::can offers full monitoring systems.


Water Use Protection

For most purposes serving human beings, the quality of a source water must be continuously tracked and kept under control. For purposes like drinking water extraction, industrial use - especially food industry, swimming and water sports, agricultural use, etc., the need for controlling the water quality is getting more and more important when water is getting scarce, and must be even re-used several before being released to the sea.

Checking the water a few times a year is not sufficient any more when considering the often very fast dynamics of water quality, and the more and more technical nature of the water cycle.

Tracking the s::can parameters – TOC, DOC, COD, NO3, NO2,Turbidity, O2, pH, Temperature, and in addition the UV-spectra – gives a full picture of the water quality so the water manager can be sure the water is in normal condition and nothing extraordinary is threatening the intended use.



Water Quality Management

For the first time most parameters that a water manager can have influence on, can be tracked as concentration or as load. The actual state of the water is directly displayed on your screen. The self-cleaning capacity of the water can now be observed and the results can be used for efficient water quality management.

SERVOMEX
  Waste water flyer 1800
  Monitoring of oxygen in pharmaceutical and reactors 1900
  Safety monitoring of oxigen concentration in centrifuges 1900
  Gas analisys requerements in the PVC manufacturing process 2500
  Maximising the efficiency of solvent recovery plant with infrared analisys 2500
  On-Line analisys in the pharmaceutical fine chemical and fragance industries 2500
  The continuous monitoring of biological reactors 2500
  The measurement of water for the quality 2500
  Use of infrared analyser on ethylene plant 2500
  Cement aplications 2700
  Combustion control in process heaters and thermal crackers 2700
  Combustion control waste water threatement 2700
  Fine control in the combustion control 2700
  Gas purity analyzer on air separation plant
  Gas analysers play crucial CEM role in sludge treatment plant
  Servomex to monitor paint shop emissions 4900
  Standard kiln gas analysis system 4900
  Accessories and options for intrinsically safe portable gas analyser
  Cranlea 5200
  Portable gas analyser proves invaluable for research into carbon
THERMO FISHER TECHNOLOGIES
  Anesthetic agent detection miran saphire
  Applications in the hospital environment miran saphire
  Toxic substances in fume hoods miran saphire
  Ventilation studies using tracer gases miran saphire
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